---
layout: page
title: Open [-Source-] {+Knowledge+} Definition {+1.1+}
---

[-# The Open Source Definition-]

{+Version 1.1+}

## [-Introduction-]
[--]
[-Open source doesn't just mean access-] {+Terminology +}
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{+The term **knowledge** is taken to include:+}
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{+  1. Content such as music, films, books+}
{+  2. Data be it scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise+}
{+  3. Government and other administrative information+}
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{+Software is excluded despite its obvious centrality because it is already adequately addressed by previous work.+}
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{+The term **work** will be used+} to {+denote+} the [-source code.-] {+item or piece of knowledge which is being transferred.+}

The [-distribution terms-] {+term **package** may also be used to denote a collection+} of [-open-source software must comply with-] {+works. Of course such a package may be considered a work in itself.+}
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{+The term **license** refers to the legal license under which the work is made available. Where no license has been made this should be interpreted as referring to the resulting default legal conditions under which the work is available (for example copyright).+}
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{+## The Definition +}
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{+A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies+} the following [-criteria:-] {+conditions:+}

### 1. [-Free-] {+Access +}
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{+The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The work must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.+}
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{+*Comment: This can be summarized as 'social' openness - not only are you allowed to get the work but you can get it. 'As a whole' prevents the limitation of access by indirect means, for example by only allowing access to a few items of a database at a time (material should be available in bulk as necessary). Convenient and modifiable means that material should be machine readable (rather than, for example, just human readable).*+}
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{+### 2.+} Redistribution 

The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the [-software-] {+work either on its own or+} as [-a component-] {+part+} of [-an aggregate software distribution containing programs-] {+a package made+} from [-several-] {+works from many+} different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such [-sale.-]
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[-### 2. Source Code-]
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[-The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor-] {+sale+} or [-translator are not allowed.-] {+distribution.+}

### 3. [-Derived Works-] {+Reuse+} 

The license must allow {+for+} modifications and [-derived works,-] {+derivative works+} and must allow them to be distributed under the [-same-] terms [-as the license-] of the original [-software.-] {+work.+}
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{+*Comment: Note that this clause does not prevent the use of 'viral' or share-alike licenses that require redistribution of modifications under the same terms as the original.*+}

### 4. [-Integrity-] {+Absence+} of {+Technological Restriction+} 

The [-Author's Source Code-]
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[-The license may restrict source-code from being distributed-] {+work must be provided+} in [-modified-] {+such a+} form [-*only* if the license allows-] {+that there are no technological obstacles to+} the [-distribution-] {+performance+} of [-"patch files" with-] the [-source code for-] {+above activities. This can be achieved by+} the [-purpose-] {+provision+} of [-modifying-] the [-program at build time.-] {+work in an open data format, i.e. one whose specification is publicly and freely available and which places no restrictions monetary or otherwise upon its use.+}
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{+### 5. Attribution+} 

The license {+may require as a condition for redistribution and re-use the attribution of the contributors and creators to the work. If this condition is imposed it+} must [-explicitly permit distribution-] {+not be onerous. For example if attribution is required a list+} of [-software built from modified source code.-] {+those requiring attribution should accompany the work.+}
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{+### 6. Integrity+} 

The license may require [-derived works to-] {+as a condition for the work being distributed in modified form that the resulting work+} carry a different name or version number from the original [-software.-] {+work.+}

### [-5.-] {+7.+} No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 

The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.

{+*Comment: In order to get the maximum benefit from the process, the maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open knowledge. Therefore we forbid any open-knowledge license from locking anybody out of the process.*+}
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{+*Comment: this is taken directly from item 5 of the OSD.*+}

### [-6.-] {+8.+} No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 

The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the [-program-] {+work+} in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the [-program-] {+work+} from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.

{+*Comment: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open material from being used commercially. We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.*+}
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{+*Comment: this is taken directly from item 6 of the OSD.*+}

### [-7.-] {+9.+} Distribution of License 

The rights attached to the [-program-] {+work+} must apply to all to whom [-the program-] {+it+} is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.

{+*Comment: This clause is intended to forbid closing up knowledge by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.*+}
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{+*Comment: this is taken directly from item 7 of the OSD.*+}

### [-8.-] {+10.+} License Must Not Be Specific to a [-Product-] {+Package+} 

The rights attached to the [-program-] {+work+} must not depend on the [-program's-] {+work+} being part of a particular [-software distribution.-] {+package.+} If the [-program-] {+work+} is extracted from that [-distribution-] {+package+} and used or distributed within the terms of the [-program's-] {+work's+} license, all parties to whom the [-program-] {+work+} is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original [-software distribution.-] {+package.+}
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{+*Comment: this is taken directly from item 8 of the OSD.*+}

### [-9.-] {+11.+} License Must Not Restrict {+the Distribution of+} Other [-Software-] {+Works+} 

The license must not place restrictions on other [-software-] {+works+} that [-is-] {+are+} distributed along with the licensed [-software.-] {+work.+} For example, the license must not insist that all other [-programs-] {+works+} distributed on the same medium [-must be open-source software.-]
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[-### 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral-]
[--]
[-No provision-] {+are open.+}
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{+*Comment: Distributors+} of {+open knowledge have+} the [-license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.-]
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[-*Last modified, 2007-03-22*-]
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[-___-]
[--]
[-*Copy-] {+right to make their own choices. Note that 'share-alike' licenses are conformant since those provisions only apply if the whole forms a single work.*+}
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{+*Comment: this is taken directly from item 9+} of [-<http://opensource.org/docs/osd> licensed under <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/>.*-] {+the OSD.*+}