---
layout: page
title: Open [-Knowledge-] Definition [-1.1-] {+2.0+}
---

Version [-1.1-]
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[-## Terminology-] {+2.0+}

The [-term **knowledge** is taken-] {+Open Definition makes precise the meaning of "open" with respect+} to [-include:-]
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[-  1. Content such as music, films, books-]
[-  2. Data be it scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise-]
[-  3. Government-] {+knowledge, promoting a robust commons in which anyone may participate,+} and [-other administrative information-]
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[-Software-] {+interoperability+} is [-excluded despite its obvious centrality because-] {+maximized.+}
{++}
{+**Summary:** *Knowledge is open if anyone is free to access, use, modify, and share+} it {+— subject, at most, to measures that preserve provenance and openness.*+}
{++}
{+This essential meaning matches that of "open" with respect to software as in the [Open Source Definition](http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd) and+} is [-already adequately addressed by previous work.-] {+synonymous with "free" or "libre" as in the [Definition of Free Cultural Works](http://freedomdefined.org). The Open Definition was initially derived from the Open Source Definition, which in turn was derived from the [Debian Free Software Guidelines](http://www.debian.org/social_contract).+}

The term **work** will be used to denote the item or piece of knowledge [-which is-] being transferred.

The term [-**package** may also be used to denote a collection of works. Of course such a package may be considered a work in itself.-]
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[-The term-] **license** refers to the legal [-license-] {+conditions+} under which the work is
made available. Where no license has been [-made-] {+offered+} this should be interpreted
as referring to [-the resulting-] default legal conditions [-under which-] {+governing use of+} the work [-is available-] (for [-example copyright).-] 
{+example, copyright or public domain).+}

## [-The Definition -]
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[-A work is-] {+1. Open Works+}
{++}
{+An+} open [-if-] {+**work** must satisfy the following requirements in+} its [-manner-] {+distribution:+}
{++}
{+### 1.1 Open License+}
{++}
{+The **work** *must* be available under an open **license** (as defined in Section 2).+}
{+Any additional terms accompanying the work (such as a terms+} of [-distribution satisfies-] {+use, or patents held by+} the [-following conditions:-] {+licensor) *must not* +}
{+contradict the terms of the license.+}

### [-1.-] {+1.2+} Access

The [-work-] {+**work**+} shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable 
{+one-time+} reproduction cost, preferably [-downloading-] {+downloadable+} via the Internet without charge. [-The work must-]
{+Any additional information necessary for license compliance (such as names of +}
{+contributors required for compliance with attribution requirements) *must*+} also 
{+accompany the work.+}
{++}
{+### 1.3 Open Format+}
{++}
{+The **work** *must*+} be [-available-] {+provided+} in a convenient and modifiable [-form.-]
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[-*Comment: This can be summarized as 'social' openness - not only-] {+form such+}
{+that there+} are [-you allowed-] {+no unnecessary technological obstacles+} to [-get-] the [-work but you can get it. 'As a whole' prevents the limitation of access by indirect means, for example by only allowing access to a few items-] {+performance+} of [-a database at a time (material-] {+the+}
{+licensed rights. Specifically, data+} should be {+machine-readable,+} available in [-bulk as necessary). Convenient-]
{+bulk,+} and [-modifiable means that material should-] {+provided in an open format (i.e., a format with a freely available+}
{+published specification which places no restrictions, monetary or otherwise, upon+}
{+its use) or, at the very least, can+} be [-machine readable (rather than, for example, just human readable).*-]
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[-###-] {+processed with at least one free/libre/open-source+}
{+software tool.+}
{++}
{++}
{+##+} 2. {+Open Licenses+}
{++}
{+A **license** is open if its terms satisfy the following conditions:+}
{++}
{+### 2.1 Required Permissions+}
{++}
{+The **license** *must* irrevocably permit (or allow) the following:+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.1 Use+}
{++}
{+The **license** *must* allow free use of the licensed work.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.2+} Redistribution

The [-license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away-] {+**license** *must* allow redistribution of+} the [-work either-] {+licensed work, +}
{+including sale, whether+} on its own or as part of a [-package-] {+collection+} made from 
works from [-many-] different sources.

{+#### 2.1.3 Modification+}

The [-license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale or distribution.-]
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[-### 3. Reuse -]
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[-The license must allow for modifications and derivative works and must-] {+**license** *must*+} allow [-them to be distributed under-] the [-terms-] {+creation of derivatives+} of the [-original work.-]
[--]
[-*Comment: Note that this clause does not prevent-] {+licensed +}
{+work and allow+} the [-use of 'viral' or share-alike licenses that require redistribution-] {+distribution+} of [-modifications-] {+such derivatives+} under the same
terms [-as the original.*-]
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[-### 4. Absence-] of [-Technological Restriction -]
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[-The work must be provided in such a form that there are no technological obstacles to-] the [-performance-] {+original licensed work.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.4 Separation+}
{++}
{+The **license** *must* allow any part+} of the [-above activities. This can-] {+work+}
{+to+} be [-achieved by the provision-] {+freely used, distributed, or modified separately from any other part+} 
of the work {+or from any collection of works+} in [-an open data format, i.e. one whose specification is publicly and freely available and-] which [-places no restrictions monetary or otherwise upon its use.-]
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[-### 5. Attribution -]
[--]
[-The license may require as-] {+it was originally +}
{+distributed. All parties who receive any distribution of any part of+}
a [-condition for redistribution and re-use-] {+work within+} the [-attribution-] {+terms+} of the [-contributors and creators to-] {+original license should have+} the [-work. If this condition is imposed it must not be onerous. For example if attribution is required a list of-] {+same rights+}
{+as+} those [-requiring attribution should accompany-] {+that are granted in conjunction with+} the {+original+} work.

[-### 6. Integrity-]

{+#### 2.1.5 Compilation+}

The [-license may require as a condition for-] {+**license** *must* allow+} the {+licensed+} work [-being-] {+to be+} distributed [-in modified form that the resulting work carry a different name or version number from the original work.-]
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[-### 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups-] {+along +}
{+with other distinct works without placing restrictions on these other works.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.6 Non-discrimination+}

The [-license must not-] {+**license** *must not*+} discriminate against any person or [-group of persons.-]
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[-*Comment: In order-] {+group.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.7 Propagation+}
{++}
{+The rights attached+} to [-get the maximum benefit from-] the [-process,-] {+work *must* apply to all to whom it is redistributed +}
{+without+} the [-maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible-] {+need+} to [-contribute-] {+agree+} to [-open knowledge. Therefore we forbid-] any [-open-knowledge-] {+additional legal terms.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.1.8 Application to Any Purpose+}
{++}
{+The **license** *must* allow use, redistribution, modification, and +}
{+compilation for any purpose. The+} license [-from locking anybody out of the process.*-]
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[-*Comment: this is taken directly from item 5 of the OSD.*-]
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[-### 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor -]
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[-The license must not restrict anyone-] {+*must not* restrict anyone+}
from making use of the work in a specific field of endeavor. [-For example, it may-]

{+#### 2.1.9 No Charge+}
{++}
{+The **license** *must not* impose any fee arrangement, royalty, or other+}
{+compensation or monetary remuneration as part of its conditions.+}
{++}
{+### 2.2 Acceptable Conditions+}
{++}
{+The **license** shall+} not [-restrict-] {+limit, make uncertain, or otherwise diminish+} the [-work from being used-] {+permissions +}
{+required+} in [-a business, or from being used for genetic research.-]
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[-*Comment:-] {+Section 2.1 except by the following allowable conditions:+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.1 Attribution+}

The [-major intention-] {+**license** *may* require distributions+} of [-this clause is-] {+the work+} to [-prohibit license traps that prevent open material from being used commercially. We want commercial users to join our community,-] {+include attribution+}
{+of contributors, rights holders, sponsors and creators as long as+}
{+any such prescriptions are+} not [-feel excluded from it.*-]
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[-*Comment: this is taken directly from item 6-] {+onerous.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.2 Integrity+}
{++}
{+The **license** *may* require that modified versions+} of {+a licensed work+}
{+carry a different name or version number from+} the [-OSD.*-]
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[-### 9. Distribution of License-] {+original work or +}
{+otherwise indicate what changes have been made. +}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.3 Share-alike+}

The [-rights attached to the-] {+**license** *may* require copies or derivatives of a licensed+} work [-must apply-] to [-all-] {+remain+}
{+under a license the same as or similar+} to [-whom it is redistributed without-] the [-need for execution-] {+original.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.4 Notice+}
{++}
{+The **license** *may* require retention+} of [-an additional license by those parties.-]
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[-*Comment: This clause is intended to forbid closing up knowledge by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.*-]
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[-*Comment: this is taken directly from item 7-] {+copyright notices and identification+} of the [-OSD.*-]
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[-### 10. License Must Not Be Specific-] {+license.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.5 Source+}
{++}
{+The **license** *may* require modified works+} to {+be made available in+} a [-Package-] {+form preferred for further modification.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.6 Technical Restriction Prohibition+}

The [-rights attached to the work must not depend on the work being part-] {+**license** *may* prohibit distribution+} of [-a particular package. If-] the work [-is extracted from that package and used or distributed within-] {+in a manner where technical measures impose restrictions on+} the [-terms-] {+exercise+} of [-the work's license, all parties-] {+otherwise allowed rights.+}
{++}
{+#### 2.2.7 Non-aggression+}
{++}
{+The **license** *may* require modifiers+} to [-whom the work is redistributed should have-] {+grant+} the [-same rights-] {+public additional permissions (for example, patent licenses)+} as [-those that are granted in conjunction with the original package.-]
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[-*Comment: this is taken directly from item 8-] {+required for exercise+} of the [-OSD.*-]
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[-### 11. License Must Not Restrict-] {+rights allowed by+} the [-Distribution of Other Works-] {+license.+} The license [-must not place restrictions-] {+may also condition permissions+} on [-other works that are distributed along with the licensed work. For example, the license must-] not [-insist that all other works distributed on the same medium are open.-]
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[-*Comment: Distributors of open knowledge have the right-] {+aggressing against licensees with respect+} to [-make their own choices. Note that 'share-alike' licenses are conformant since those provisions only apply if the whole forms a single work.*-]
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[-*Comment: this is taken directly from item 9 of the OSD.*-] {+exercising any allowed right (again, for example, patent litigation).+}